Under the SPS Agreement, the WTO sets restrictions on Member States` policies on food safety (bacterial contaminants, pesticides, inspection and labelling) and animal and plant health (phyto-sanitation) with regard to imported pests and diseases. There are three standard-setting bodies that set standards on which WTO members should base their SPS methods. In accordance with Article 3, these are the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex), the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Secretariat of the International Plant Protection Agreement (IPI). Given that the GATT temporarily focused on tariff reduction, the framework that preceded the SPS Agreement was not sufficiently provided to address the problems of non-tariff barriers (NTBs) and the need for an independent agreement on this issue became critical.  The SPS Convention is an ambitious attempt to address DNTs resulting from transnational differences in technical standards, without undermining the prerogative of governments to take protective measures against diseases and pests.  (d) the accession and participation of the Member or competent bodies in its territory in international and regional animal and phytosanitary protection and enforcement organizations and systems, as well as in bilateral and multilateral agreements and arrangements falling within the scope of this Agreement, and in the text of such agreements and arrangements. The SPS Agreement is closely linked to the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade, signed in the same year and pursuing similar objectives. It was negotiated during the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and entered into force with the creation of the WTO in early 1995.  Overall, sanitary and phytosanitary measures covered by the Agreement are measures to protect human, animal or plant life or health from certain risks.
 3. Nothing in this Convention shall affect the rights of Members under other international instruments, including the right to have recourse to the good offices or dispute settlement mechanisms of other international organizations established under an international agreement. 11. . . .