Russian officials have proposed an unprecedented defense for not complying with the obligation to consult. They said they had not signed the Budapest Memorandum with the current government in Kiev. But the agreement exists between the United States, Russia, Ukraine and Britain – not between certain governments. If this strange diplomatic logic were applied more generally, States would have to re-sign any agreement they have with another State if that State changed government. The Budapest Memorandum is more of a politically binding agreement than a legally binding treaty. Nevertheless, former Ukrainian officials, then in office, felt that it was crucial to Kiev`s decision to renounce nuclear weapons. It was also a good reminder of the fact that not so long ago, Ukraine had the world`s third largest fleet of ICBMs – as well as the third largest nuclear arsenal. In 1994, Kiev agreed to hand over its nuclear arsenal to Russia for dismantling, in return for certain commitments, including respect for the sovereignty of the former Soviet state. This agreement was known as the Budapest Protocol on Security Assurances. And today, Moscow`s actions in Crimea blatantly violate these obligations. In December 1994, Clinton, Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma (Kravchuk`s successor), Yeltsin and British Prime Minister John Major signed the Budapest Memorandum which obliged the United States, Russia and Britain to “respect ukraine`s independence and sovereignty and existing borders” and “not to threaten or use force against Ukraine`s territorial integrity or political independence.” The agreement concluded that “none of their [American, Russian and British] weapons will ever be used against Ukraine, except to defend themselves or otherwise in accordance with the UN Charter.” In all the information you have published in your newspaper about the many House of Representatives investigations into the impeachment of President Trump, I have not mentioned anywhere the 1999 comprehensive treaty signed by President Clinton and ratified by the United States Senate on cooperation between the United States.
and Ukraine in the investigation and prosecution of crimes. There is also such an agreement with China, China-United States. Agreement on Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters. When the four parties signed the memorandum in 1994, they agreed on a meeting if a nation felt that any of the obligations had been violated. For Ukraine, the hurtful country is of course Russia. And for the first time since the signing of the agreement, Kiev has called for a meeting of the four nations. Russia has long deployed elements of the Black Sea Fleet and associated units to Crimea – with the agreement of Ukraine. Kiev has not made any threats against these bases and Ukrainian forces on the peninsula have exercised a great deal of restraint. Moscow has no basis for claiming self-defense and has indeed not invoked the right to self-defense. . .